The sound examples are most easily and seamlessly available on the ebook version, available for iPad and Mac, in which you need merely touch a sound example to hear and see it.
sound example 2.1: Sound of the heartbeat of a nine-day old infant (in this case about 133 beats per minute), using a stethoscope. Using touch alone, Herophilus probably only felt the rapidity and near-equality of the main pulse beats, whose rhythm he described as pyrrhic.
sound example 4.1: The thirteenth-century Parisian conductus “Breves dies humanis,” illustrating rhythmic notation according to Johannes de Garlandia (about 1280), as shown in figure 4.2. Text: “Short is the span of man’s days, / Life in this world, / Member of the human race, / What life is, consider well.” This conductus uses the first and second rhythmic modes (trochaic and iambic, in terms of poetic meters). Performed by Ensemble Peregrina, directed by Agnieszka Budzińska-Bennett, from their album Crux: Parisian Easter Music from the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries (Glossa, 2011).
sound example 4.2: The song “Musices septemque modos planetae” (“Music of the seven planetary modes”) from Franchino Gafori’s Practica musica (1496) performed by Ensemble Daedalus, directed by Roberto Festa, from their CD Musa latina: L’invention de l’antique (Alpha Classics, 2009). Text: “The seven planets and seven modes direct music, and with the same number of Thracian strings the ancient lyre resounded in poems.... When man is united with the art of music, natural movements rule the body: no one can deny that the mind is sustained by numbers.”
sound example 4.3: Jerzy Liban’s version of the Magnificat in mode seven from his De musicae laudibus oratio (1540, figure 4.5 top). Text: “My soul magnifies the Lord.” This example (and the two following) performed by Polski Chór Kameralny, conducted by Jan Łukaszewski, from their album Jerzy Liban: Opera omnia (BeArTon, 2001).
sound example 4.4: Jerzy Liban’s version of the Magnificat in mode four from his De musicae laudibus oratio (1540, figure 4.5 middle).
sound example 4.5: Jerzy Liban’s version of the Magnificat in mode six, from his De musicae laudibus oratio (1540, figure 4.5 bottom).
sound example 5.1: Kepler’s musical example of male orgasm as the outward resolution of a “hard” major third G–B to a perfect fourth G–C, from Book III of his Harmony of the World.
sound example 5.2: Kepler’s example of female orgasm as the inward resolution of a “soft” minor third D–F to the unison D, from Book III of his Harmony of the World.
sound example 6.1: Athanasius Kircher’s musical “antidote for the tarantula,” from his Magnes, sive de arte magnetica (1641; figure 6.1), as performed by Marina Bonetti (harp) andDiego Cantalupi (chitarrone), from their album La cetra d’Orfeo (MV Cremona, 2005).
sound example 6.2: “Stu pettu è fattu Cimbalu d’Amuri,” a tarantella notated in Kircher’s Magnes, sive de arte magnetica (1641; figure 6.2) in Apulian dialect, performed by Debora Troìa and the Arianna Art Ensemble, directed by Paolo Rigano, from their album Cimbalu d’amuri (2021). Text: “This breast has become a harpsichord of love / Keys, the senses, feeling and ready / Strings, the tears, sighs, and pains / Sound hole is my heart, mortally wounded.”
sound example 7.1: The corps sonore of E brings the statue to life in Rameau’s Pygmalion (1748; figure 7.9), as performed by Howard Crook (Pygmalion) and Les Arts Florissants, conducted by William Christie (1991). Pygmalion: “Where do these chords come from? What are these harmonious sounds? A vivid light spreads all around.” A moment of silence. The statue comes to life.
sound example 8.1: The chord of F major (reading upward, F–A–C–F) formed in Athanasius Kircher’s notation of the pulse rhythms appropriate to a boy, a youth, a man, and an old man, from Musurgia universalis (1650; see figure 8.2).
sound example 8.2: Marquet’s notation of the “natural regular pulse,” overlaid against a minuet (see figure 8.5), as played by Ariel Winnick, violin.
sound example 8.3: The drums (tymbales) in Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie (1733), Act I, Scene 4 (see figure 8.6b), as performed by Les Arts Florissants, conducted by William Christie (1997). Compare Marquet's notation of various kinds of pulse (see figure 8.6a).
sound example 8.4: A passage in notes inégales from the Prologue to Rameau, Hippolyte et Aricie (1733; figure 8.7b), performed by Eirian James (Diane) and Les Arts Florissants, conducted by William Christie (1997). Diane: “On these happy shores I make peace reign.” Compare Marquet’s notation of “intercadent,” “unequal and intermittent,” and “irregular and intercadent” pulses (figure 8.7a).
sound example 8.5: A French ouverture, to Rameau, Hippolyte et Aricie (1733; see figure 8.8b), as performed by Les Arts Florissants, conducted by William Christie (1997). Compare Marquet’s notation of “capering,” “convulsive,” and “double” pulses (figure 8.8a).
sound example 9.1: The exposition of the first movement Marianna Auenbrugger’s Sonata (ca. 1781), played by Sara Hagen, piano, from her album Women of Note (2019).
sound example 9.2: W. A. Mozart’s use of muted timpani (coperti) at the beginning of the Finale to Act I of Die Zauberflöte (1791; figure 9.2, sixth line down), as performed by the Royal College of Music Opera Orchestra, conducted by Michael Rosewell, on November 24, 2021.
sound example 9.3: The Swiss Ranz des Vaches, as transcribed by J. J. Rousseau, in his Dictionary of Music (1768), as performed by Peter Shepperd Skærved, violin.
sound example 9.4: The Breton song “Alan al louarn” (“Alan the fox”), from Théodore Hersart La Villemarqué, Barzaz-Breiz, Chants populaires de la Bretagne (1867; see figure 9.6), as performed by Pierrick Lemou from his album Violons de Terre (2018). Text: “The bearded fox yaps, yaps, yaps in the woods; woe to foreign rabbits! His eyes are two sharp blades! Sharp are his teeth and rapid his feet; his nails red with blood. Alan the fox yaps, yaps, yaps: war! war!”
sound example 9.5: A song that Laennec heard stethoscopically above the carotid artery of a patient (see pages 164–165).
sound example 9.6: A melody Laennec heard “whistled” by the artery of another patient (see page 165).
sound example 9.7: Another melody Laennec heard “whistled” by the artery of a third patient (see page 165).
sound example 10.1: Gaetano Brunetti’s Symphony no. 33, the beginning of the first movement. Note the “sighing” semitone in the first and second violins (measures 1–2; see figure 10.1). This example (and the others in chapter 10) is played by the Italian Chamber Orchestra conducted by Newell Jenkins.
sound example 10.2: The first three measures of the Andantino, showing the first statement of manía in the solo cello (whose line is second from the bottom, just above the line for the other celli), a repeated semitone G F# (see figure 10.2).
sound example 10.3: The orchestra’s outburst at mm. 43–45 of the first movement (see figure 10.3).
sound example 10.4: The passage leading up to the recapitulation, the first violins presenting upwardly “sighing” semitones, an inversion of the maniático’s downward semitones (see figure 10.4).
sound example 10.5: Measures 6–19 of the Minore section of the second movement, showing the maniático’s slightly varied semitones (measure 18) (see figure 10.5).
sound example 10.6: The first six measures of the Allegro spiritoso (see figure 10.6). Note that here the solo cello plays along with the others.
sound example 10.7: Measures 73–76 of the Allegro spiritoso, the “relapse” just before the return of the Andantino (see figure 10.7).
sound example 10.8: Measures 9–16 of the final Allegro spiritoso, showing the orchestra playing the manía theme (see figure 10.8).
sound example 11.1: Colas’ aria “Diggi, daggi” from Mozart, Bastien und Bastienne (K50, 1768; figure 11.3). Colas: “Diggi, daggi, schurry, murry, horum, harum, lirum, larum, Raudi, maudi, giri, gari,....”
sound example 11.2: The opening measures of W. A. Mozart’s motet Ave verum corpus (K618, 1791; figure 11.4a), as performed at the 2014 Siblu/Hermannstadt International Music Festival by the Mozart Kammersymphonie of the Romanian Foundation for Excellence in Music and The Festival Choir (Iosif Ion Prunner, director), conducted by Christian Badea.
sound example 11.3: Mozart’s Adagio for glass harmonica (K356/617a, 1791; figure 11.4b), as performed by William Zeitler, glass harmonica.
sound example 11.4: The mesmerism scene from Act I of Mozart’s Così fan tutte (figure 11.7): [Despina]: “Here is the proof of my powers.” [Fiordiligi, Dorabella, Alfonso]: “He’s holding a piece of metal.” [Despina]: “This is a magnet, a mesmeric stone from Germany and lately celebrated in France.” She shakes the magnet over the heads of the supposed invalids. [Fiordiligi, Dorabella, Alfonso]: “How they’re twitching! They’ll crack open their skulls.” Performed live at the Glyndebourne Opera in 2006 by Ainhoa Garmendia (Despina), Nicolas Rivenq (Don Alfonso), Miah Persson (Fiordiligi), Anke Vondung (Dorabella), Topi Lehtipuu (Ferrando), and Luca Pisaroni (Guglielmo), with Iván Fischer conducting the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment. Così fan tutte was filmed as a co-production by BBC, Glyndebourne, Opus Arte and NHK. Music edited by Faye Ferguson and Wolfgang Rehm, published by Bärenreiter-Verlag, Kassel, performed by arrangement with Faber Music Ltd, London.
sound example 12.1: An excerpt from the mad scene from Donizetti’s Lucia di Lammermoor (1836; Act III, Scene 5). Lucia: “The sweet sound of his voice strikes me. Ah, that voice has entered my heart!” In the manuscript version, the “dolce suono” was performed by an “armonico” (as Donizetti spelled it), though the published score (shown in figure 12.1) uses a flute. In this performance, Diana Damrau (Lucia) and Sasha Reckert (glass harmonica) are joined by the Münchener Opernchor and Orchestra conducted by Jesús López-Cobos (Erato, 2014).
sound example 12.2: Demonstration of the sound of a tam-tam played by David Miller, percussionist, in different ways: first a sudden stroke, then a stroke that is quickly muted by hand, followed by a gradual crescendo and dimenuendo produced using two soft beaters.
sound example 12.3: François-Joseph Gossec’s March lugubre (1790). In figure 12.4, the tam-tam part is the lowest line, just underneath the bass drum.
sound example 12.4: Berlioz’s use of the tam-tam and bass drum to underline Faust signing away his soul in La damnation de Faust (Part IV, scene 17, bars 66–70; figure 12.5). Faust: “Give it to me! Here is my name!” Performed by José van Dam (Faust) and the Opera de Lyon, conducted by Ken Nagano (Erato, 1997).
sound example 13.1: Giuseppe Tartini’s examples of “third sound” (terzo suono), showing the two notes to be bowed simultaneously as whole notes, producing a “third sound” shown as a quarter note below them (see figure 13.4), from his Treatise on Music (Trattato di musica, 1754). Performed by Ariel Winnick, violin.
sound example 15.1: David Pantalony and Stephen Morris demonstrates the sounds produced by Helmholtz’s synthesizer, built by Rudolph Koenig in Paris (about 1865; see figure 15.9), which can be used to superimpose the timbres of ten harmonics controlled by a small keyboard.
sound example 15.2: Franz Schubert, “Wohin?” from Die schöne Müllerin (1824, D975; figure 15.10a), as performed by Seil Kim, tenor, and Minsoo Sohn, piano, in concert on November 23, 2018. Text: “I hear a little brooklet rushing [rauschen] from its source in the rocky spring.” Note the lulling circular figure in the piano accompaniment depicting the brook’s gentle motion
sound example 15.3: Franz Schubert, “Herbst” (1828, D945; figure 15.10b), as performed by Barry McDaniel, baritone, and Hertha Klust, piano (recorded January 28, 1963 at the Haus des Rundfunks, SFB, Berlin). Text: “The winds are rustling [rauschen], so autumnal and cold.” Note the piano’s evocation of the insistently repetitive rhythm of a cold wind.
sound example 15.4: The lowest C and D in the piano keyboard, which Samuel Haughton’s “musical friends” judged close to the pitch of muscle sounds (see page 262).
sound example 18.1: A video of David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel demonstrating their experiments on the visual cortex using audio monitoring.
sound example 18.2: Signal and noise, shown with their autocorrelation functions, as illustrated in figure 18.3: (a) a pure noise signal plus a “clean” signal; (b) the “clean” signal, shown by its computed autocorrelation; (c) the white noise by itself. By comparison with figure 18.3, visually one cannot discriminate between pure noise (c) and noise plus clean signal (a), yet the ear can distinguish between them, though the signal is very quiet against the noise.
sound example 19.1: The complex sound of about ten neurons in the hippocampus of a rat, detected using a “tetrode,” four thin wires wound together and used like four microphones.
sound example 19.2: The “popping” sound of the activity of a single dopamine neuron in an anesthetized mouse, detected using a sharp glass electrode.
sound example 19.3: A carefully constructed combination of two tones that evokes harmonics generated within the ear called otoacoustic emissions (OAE). These harmonics are not present in the stimulus and can be detected by a small microphone in the outer ear (as in figure 19.3); their presence indicates cochlear integrity essential for good hearing. Such tones are used to test newborns as well as adults.
sound example 19.4: Mark D. Temple’s sonification of the DNA sequence of the first exon of the human RAS gene; compared with the “score” shown in figure 19.4, data that look similar on the page may sound noticeably different.
sound example 19.5: The “boring kind of background hum sound” of normal brainwaves sonified using Chris Chafe’s algorithm for the Ceribell EEG “brain stethoscope.”
sound example 19.6: The “irritated screaming” sound of non-convusive seizures sonified using Chris Chafe’s algorithm for the Ceribell EEG “brain stethoscope.”
4.1: Courtesy of Agnieszka Budzińska-Bennett and Ensemble Peregrina, from their album Crux: Parisian Easter Music from the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries (Glossa, 2011).
4.2: Courtesy of Robert Festa and Ensemble Daedalus, from their album Musa latina: L’invention de l’antique (Alpha Classics, 2009), ℗ & © 2022 Alpha-Outhere Music France.
4.3, 4.4, 4.5: Courtesy of dir. Jan Łukaszewski and Polski Chór Kameralny, from their album Jerzy Liban: Opera omnia (BeArTon, 2001).
6.1: Courtesy of Marina Bonetti.
6.2: Courtesy of Paolo Rigano MD and the Arianna Art Ensemble.
7.1: Performed by Howard Crook (Pygmalion) and Les Arts Florissants, conducted by William Christie (1991) from their album Rameau: Pygmalion (Harmonia mundi, 1991).
8.2, 13.1: Courtesy of Ariel Winnick MD.
8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 12.1, 12.4: Courtesy of Warner Classics, with special thanks to Makoto Nakata and Olivier Lebon.
9.1: Courtesy of Sara Hagen, from her album Women of Note (2019).
9.2: Courtesy of the Royal College of Music, London, © 2021, with special thanks to Michael Rosewell and Stephen Johns.
9.3: Courtesy of Peter Shepperd Skærved.
9.4: Courtesy of Pierrick Lemou, from his album Violons de Terre.
10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8: Performed by the Italian Chamber Orchestra conducted by Newell Jenkins from the album Italian Classical Symphonies (Boston, MA: Haydn Society, 1953).
11.2: Courtesy of Christian Badea and the Romanian Foundation for Excellence in Music.
11.3: Courtesy of William Zeitler.
11.4: Courtesy of Glyndebourne Productions Ltd.
12.2: Tam-tam demonstration by David Miller, percussionist. ©2003 Roger Vetter, courtesy of the Grinnell College Musical Instrument Collection https://omeka-s.grinnell.edu/s/MusicalInstruments/page/welcome; Please note that figure 12.3 is © 2001 Carla R. González Photography, courtesy of the Grinnell College Musical Instrument Collection https://omeka-s.grinnell.edu/s/MusicalInstruments/page/welcome
15.1: Courtesy of Stephen Morris, David Pantalony, Erich Weidenhammer, and the University of Toronto Scientific Instrument Collection.
15.2: Courtesy of Seil Kim.
15.3: Courtesy of Claudia McDaniel-Odendall.
18.1: Courtesy of Carl and Paul Hubel.
18.2: Courtesy of Eric Heller.
19.1: Courtesy of Jai Yu (University of Chicago), with special thanks to Leslie Kay.
19.2: Courtesy of Mahalakshmi Somayaji (Columbia University), with special thanks to Mark Sonders.
19.3: Courtesy of Jacob Pogson MAud PhD.
19.4: Courtesy of Mark D. Temple.
19.5, 19.6: Courtesy of Chris Chafe.
All other sound examples were performed by the author or come from sources in the public domain or Creative Commons licenses or under the guidelines of fair use.